Knowledge, skills and attributes are attained for evidence-informed, ethical, culturally relevant, age-appropriate, holistic nursing care with persons who experience acute or chronic alterations in mental health. Lifespan issues and alterations are examined for children, adolescents, adults and older adults. Theories and models are incorporated as a basis for understanding mental illness experiences and promoting mental health and healing. The impact of sociocultural influences on the client, health system, communities, and the role of the nurse are discussed. The role of the nurse is explored using a primary healthcare lens. Societal, legislative and economic issues are examined in relation to individual, family and community across the continuum of care.